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Narrative Text - Pengertian, Generic Structure, Contoh Narrative Text

What is Narrative Text

Narrative Text - Pengertian, Generic Structure, Contoh Narrative Text
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Sebuah teks naratif (narrative text) adalah teks yang menceritakan cerita dengan urutan kronologis, memiliki klimaks (climax), dan sebuah pemecahan masalah (resolution) dalam setiap cerita. Narrative text juga mempunyai pesan moral (moral value) yang dapat dipetik dan diamalkan dalam kehidupan kita. Sebuah hal atau kejadian sederhana dapat dibuat sebuah narrative text.

Kinds of Narrative Text

a. Factual
  • Pengalaman hidup yang mengandung masalah, pemecahan masalah, dan nilai moral.
  • Petualangan (adventure
  • Kisah sejarah (historical narrative)
b. Non-Factual
  • Fabel (fables) Contoh: the Mouse D and the Crocodile, Smartest Parrot 
  • Mitos (myths) Contoh: Malin Kundang
  • Legenda (legends) Contoh: Toba Banyuwangi 
  • Cerita rakyat (folktales) Contoh: Timun Ema Bawang Merah and Bawang Putih
  • Dongeng (fairytales) 7 Contoh: Cinderella, Snow White

Purpose of Narrative Text

Tujuan dasar dari naratif teks untuk menghibur pembaca dengan cerita dan mendapatkan perhatian pembaca. Selain itu, tujuan komunikasi naratif untuk mengajar, menginformasikan, dan mengungkapkan pendapat penulis tentang sebuah pengalaman. 

Generic Structure of Narrative Text


Paragraf ini memberi tahu pembaca tentang siapa yang akan diceritakan (who is in the story), kapan terjadinya (when it is happening), di mana (where it is happening), dan apa yang terjadi (what is going on). 


Once upon a time, in a beautiful country, there lived a beautiful and kind girl named Cinderella. Her mother had passed away years ago. That's why: she lived with her father, her stepmother, and her two stepsisters. Her father worked outside town and she had to live with her cruel stepmother and sisters. Although she had to work hard every day, she was really patient and sincere in doing the works. 


Bagian cerita saat narator menceritakan tentang sesuatu sebagai permulaan sebuah rangkaian cerita (chain of events). Kejadian ini akan memengaruhi satu atau lebih karakter. Masalah (the complication) tersebut akan menjadi pemicu cerita. 


The prince held a dance. Cinderella really wanted to go but her stepmother and sisters forbade her to go. 

Sequence of Events 

Bagian cerita saat narator menceritakan cara karakter menyikapi sebuah masalah (react to the complication). Bagian ini melibatkan perasaan dan sesuatu yang dilakukan. Kejadian tersebut dapat diceritakan dalam urutan kronologis (chronological order) atay dengan flashback. Pembaca diberikan bacaan sesuai sudut pandang penulis. 


A fairy came and helped Cinderella to come to the dance. She gave her a beautiful dress and some guards which would take her to the palace. She told her that those things would be disappeared by midnight, so she had to leave before midnight. Cinderella came to the palace and had a dance with the prince. The prince was falling in love with her until midnight came and Cinderella ran away. When she was running, one of her shoes was left there. The prince took it and on the following day, he went around the country in search of Cinderella, She came to Cinderella's house but her stepsisters said that the shoes belong to them. The prince asked them to try the shoes, but they didn’t fit them. 


Dari teks naratif, permasalahan dijabarkan atau masalah diselesaikan. 


The prince asked Cinderella to try the shoes. Of course, it fitted perfectly. The prince proposed her to be her wife. She said yes, so they got married and lived happily ever after. 


Narator memberikan jeda jika ada nilai moral atau pesan yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. 


That is why, no matter how hard our life is, we have to be kind, patient, and sincere in living our life.

Language Features of Narrative Text 

a. Specific, seringnya melibatkan individu dengan identitas yang jelas (defined identities), Tokoh 
    utamanya (major character) adalah manusia atau kadang binatang dengan karakter manusia
    (nouns and adjectives). 

  • Cinderella 
  • Malin Kundang 
  • The Mouse Deer and Crocodile 
b. Kebanyakan menggunakan kata kerja aktif (material processes), tetapi juga banyak kata kerja
    yang merujuk pada yang dikatakan, dirasakan, atau dipikirkan (verbal and mental processes).

c. Normally past tense. 

  • She lived with her stepmother 
  • He left his house to have a better life 
  • The mouse deer jumped and ran away 
d. Banyak kata penghubung yang berhubungan dengan waktu (linking words to do with time). 

  • Once upon a time 
  • After that, next, then 
  • Finally 
e. Terdapat dialog selama cerita berlangsung, tense mungkin mengalami perubahan menjadi
    present atau future. 

  • “What are you doing here?” asked the stepmother. 
  • “You are not my mother!" said Malin Kundang. 
  • “I can help you with your problem,” said Mouse Deer.
f. Descriptive language dipilih untuk mendukung cerita dengan membuat gambaran di pikiran 

  • Cinderella is very beautiful and kind. 
  • Her mother was very sad and angry: she cried and cursed her son.
g. Dapat dituliskan dengan sudut pandang orang pertama (written in the first person: I, we) atau
    orang ketiga (third person: he, she, they). 

Contoh Narrative Text

1. Example of Myth 


There was a girl named Pina who lived on a fruit plantation with her mother. When her mother worked night and day, little Pina would spend all of her time playing with her friends. When her mother asked her to do something, she would always reply that she couldn't find the things, even it was laying right in front of her eyes. 

One day, her mother fell ill and couldn’t even get up to cook some food. So, she asked Pina to cook some rice. However, Pina, being her lazy self, said “I can't find the pot, so where should | put the rice?” Her mother told her where the pot was. Then she said, “where is the ladle, how am | going to cook without a ladle?” Again her ill mother had to tell her the exact location. Pina did the same with the salt, rice, and water. Enraged by Pina’s behavior, her mother cursed, “May you grow a thousand eyes, and went back to sleep. 

When she woke up, she could not find her daughter. She searched and searched, and so did every single person on the plantation. After a few days, a strange fruit with thousands of little eyes was seen on the plantation. When Pina’s mother saw the fruit, she was immediately reminded of Pina’s beautiful brown eyes and thus, the fruit with a thousand eyes was named “Pinya’, meaning pineapple in Tagalog.

2. Example of Fable 


A handsome stag with majestic antlers admired himself in a lake. As he looked at his reflection he thought, “My antlers are beautiful! But these spindly legs of mine are so skinny | wish | could hide them in shame.” 

Just then a hunter's arrow whizzed by and the stag bounded into the woods. As he ran, his beautiful antlers caught and snagged on the branches of a low-growing tree. Struggling, he finally pulled himself free. If it weren't for the exquisite speed of his legs, he would surely have been captured. 

After that, when he gazed at his spindly legs, his pride would swell.“In times of danger,’ he thought, “they serve me well.” 

A Jealous Donkey

Once, a farmer-owned a donkey and a lapdog. The donkey worked hard all day, hauling heavy loads. The lapdog stayed with his master all day and lived in the house with him. He did not work but was allowed to sit on the master’s lap. The donkey grew jealous of the lapdog. 

“Perhaps if | behave like the dog, like way my tail and jump on the master, the master will start loving me as much as he does the dog.” So, the donkey decided to wait for his chance. 

One day, when he was left unattended, the donkey broke his halter and ran into the farmhouse kitchen. There the farmer sat at a table. The donkey rushed up to him and began wagging his tail vigorously, and knocked off all the china from the table. He then started jumping around and frolicking like a little dog and finally plonked himself down on the farmer's lap. 

The shocked farmer yelled for help. The farmhands came running in and dragged the donkey off to his stable, and gave him a beating he did not forget for the rest of his life.

3. Example of Legend

Toba Lake

Once, a fisherman named Batara Guru Sahala lived in the Batak land. One day, he caught a fish. He was surprised to find the fish. could talk. It begged Sahala to set it free. He did accordingly. 

As soon as the fish was free, it changed into a woman. She was so beautiful that Sahala fell in love at once. He asked her to marry him. The woman agreed to marry Sahala. However, she told him that he must never let out the secret that she was once a fish. Sahala promised that he would not tell anyone about it. 

They were happily married and had two daughters. Every morning Sahala went out fishing. One day, his daughters brought him his lunch. However, instead of bringing the food to their father, the two girls ate it. When Sahala knew what they had done with the meal, he ) got very angry. He shouted at them, “You behaved exactly like daughters of the fish!” 

They did not know what their father meant. They went home and asked their mother about it. Their mother was very upset. Although Sahala apologized to her, she would not forgive him for breaking his promise. 

Then the earth began to shake, and the volcano started to erupt. The earth cracked and formed a big hole. It is said that the hole - became the Toba Lake.

Ciri-ciri bahasa (language features): 
  • Specific: Toba Lake 
  • Past tense: One day, he caught a fish 
  • Linking verbs: Once, one day, then, as 
  • Dialogue: You behaved exactly like daughters of the fish! 
  • Descriptive language: She was so beautiful that Sahala fell in love at once. 

Contoh Soal Narrative Text dan Pembahasan.

Direction: answer the following questions correctly by choosing A, B, C, or D. 

The following text is for questions 1 to 3.

Last month, SMP Utama joined a Tarik Tambang contest with SMP Bangsa as their opponent. Two weeks before the contest, the students of SMP Utama started practicing hard. “We must learn to pull the rope together at the same time,’ said Amin, the team’s leader. “Only then will our team be strong.’ 

On the day of the contest, the team from SMP Bangsa arrived at SMP Utama by bus. Everyone was surprised to see that the students from SMP Bangsa were much taller and bigger than the students of SMP Utama. “We'll surely lose,’ said Rano, a member of SMP Utama.”Do not give up so easily,’ said Amin. “We must try our best.’ 

Soon, the contest began. Which team do you think won the contest? It was SMP Utama. Although the students are tall and big, it was too hard for SMP Bangsa to beat SMP Utama because SMP Utama pulls the rope together at the same time, while SMP Bangsa students, on the other hand, were not united at all.

1. When did SMP Utama join a Tarik tambang contest?

A. Two weeks before the contest
B. On the day of the contest
C. At the same time
D. Last month 

Jawaban: D 

Pada kalimat pertama di teks, dijelaskan waktu pelaksanaan lomba Tarik Tambang. 

2. Which is the best title for the text above?

A. The strong boys
B. The winner of the contest
C. The students’ competition
D. The Tarik Tambang contest 

Jawaban: D 

Teks naratif tersebut menceritakan lomba tarik tambang antara SMP Utama dengan SMP Bangsa. Dari teks, diketahui cara mereka berlatih hingga memenangkan pertandingan. 

3. Why did SMP Bangsa lose the contest? 

A. They pulled the rope at the same time
B. They were taller and bigger 
C. They were not united 
D. They gave up easily 

Jawaban: C 

Pada paragraf terakhir, dijelaskan penyebab kalahnya SMP Bangsa.

This text is for questions number 4 to 6.

The Lamb and the Wolf

One day, the wolf was slaking his thirst at a stream when he chanced to see a lamb, also drinking at some distance down the stream.

Outraged, he growled, "You are muddying my drinking water, now it shall eat you."

The lamb protested, “But, Sir, how can I be muddying your drinking water? I am farther downstream than you are. The water is flowing from your part of the stream to where I am.’ 

“Upstream or downstream, your drinking is muddying my water, and | shall eat you.’ So saying, the wolf leaped upon the lamb and devoured him. 

4. Where did the story happen?

A. On the river
B. In the forest
C. In the jungle
D. At the zoo 

Jawaban: A Dari kalimat drinking at some distance down the stream, diketahui tempat kejadian cerita. 

5. The following things made the wolf get angry with the lamb, except... 

A. The lamb protested him. 
B. The lamb muddied the water. 
C. The wolf wanted to eat the lamb. 
D. The lamb drank at some distance down his stream. 

Jawaban: C 

Penyebabnya serigala memakan kambing setelah dia marah, bukan menyebabkan kemarahan.

6. We can learn from the story that ...

A. Never drink the river water.
B. Never clean our body on the stream. 
C. The bad will always beat the good.
D. The strong will always rule the weak. 

Jawaban: D 

The wolf melakukan semau dirinya tanpa melihat fakta atau mendengarkan penjelasan the lamb. 

This text is for questions number 7 to 10. Complete the text by choosing a suitable word.

The Tiger and the Fox

A tiger once caught a fox while ... (7) for food. The fox was very bold. “I die, king of the forest,’ he said. But the tiger grew ... (8) and said that he would eat the fox at once. “If you don't believe me, come for a walk with me, answered the fox quite calmly. “You'll soon see whether all the other animals are afraid of me or not.’ The tiger agreed to go with the fox. ... (9) all of the animals saw them coming, ... (10) ran away as fast as they could. The tiger never found out that the animals were really frightened of him and not the fox. 

7. ...

A. hunting
B. buying
C. asking
D. seeing

Jawaban: A 

Dari arti kalimatnya, diketahui harimau mendapatkan rubah sewaktu ... makanan. Makanan ini dicari harimau, tidak mungkin harimau membeli, bertanya, atau melihat.

8. ...

A. very strong
B. quite friendly 
C. very angry
D. rather sad

Jawaban: C 

Rubah mengumumkan dirinya itu raja hutan. Sebagal raja hutan, tentu harimau marah dan ingin memakannya. 

9. ...

A. if
B. so
C. when 
D. because

Jawaban: C 

Sesuai dengan time clause. 

10. ...

A. he
B. it
C. she
D. they 

Jawaban: D 

Kata ganti orang yang tepat adalah mereka (they).

30 Contoh Soal Narrative Text dan Jawabannya

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